Penulisan Abstrak Bahasa Inggris

Abstrak dalam versi Bahasa Inggris harus ditulis dengan memenuhi kaidah penulisan Bahasa Inggris yang baik untuk abstrak pada tulisan ilmiah. Kalimat-kalimat pada abstrak harus ditulis dengan tipe kalimat (tenses) yang sesuai.

Berikut adalah panduan tenses yang digunakan di dalam abstrak berserta contoh kalimatnya.

Type of Information Tenses Examples
Giving background details Present tense The industry is already well known for its efforts to improve the eco-efficiency of its processes.
Describing the research activity Simple past tense, present perfect tense

The study focused on 2 main areas.
The framework for life cycle analysis has been developed.

Describing the methods Simple past tense (active or passive)

We carried out a series of field tests.
A large number of samples were tested for fracturing.

Reporting results Simple past tense

Results indicated that the problem is even more serious than previously predicted.
The third model proved to be more durable than the other four.

Stating conclusions

Present tense

verbs indicating tentativeness: is possible; is likely; appears; seems; might.

Modal auxiliary verbs: can; may; could; might.

This indicates that there are, in fact, several factors contributing to the decrease.
It appears that the incidence of human error cannot be eliminated at any stage.
There might be a need for revising the list of criteria within the next 5-10 years.