Peran dan Metode Pengukuran Protein Kidney Injury Molecule-1 (Kim-1) sebagai Biomarker pada Cedera Ginjal Akut

Ervita Indriani, Riezki Amalia, Jutti Levita

Abstrak


Cedera ginjal akut atau Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) adalah salah satu sindrom klinis yang menyebabkan risiko mortalitas dan morbiditas yang tinggi. Deteksi dini AKI sangat diperlukan untuk mencegah kerusakan ginjal permanen dan memperlambat perkembangan AKI. Kidney Injury Molecule-1 (KIM-1) adalah biomarker yang sensitif, spesifik dan cepat dalam deteksi dini AKI. KIM-1 akan diekspresikan berlebih pada sel epitel tubulus proksimal setelah adanya cedera pada ginjal. KIM-1 dapat menggambarkan disfungsi ginjal melalui cairan tubuh, seperti plasma dan urin. Kajian pustaka ini membahas karakteristik, peran dan metode pengukuran KIM-1 sebagai biomarker untuk deteksi dini AKI. Kajian dilakukan terhadap 51 artikel yang didapat dari basis data PubMed dengan kata kunci “Kidney Injury Molecule-1”, “KIM-1 Biomarker”, “KIM-1 assay”, “Acute Kidney Injury” dan “KIM-1 kidney injury biomarker”. KIM-1 adalah glikoprotein transmembran tipe I dengan berat molekul ~104 kDa yang mengalami peningkatan konsentrasi di membran apikal sel epitel tubulus proksimal dan berperan dalam patogenesis cedera sel tubulus ginjal. KIM-1 memiliki sensitivitas dan spesifisitas yang baik dengan nilai AUC-ROC >0,5. Metode pengukuran yang paling banyak digunakan adalah ELISA dan sampel yang paling banyak digunakan adalah urin karena peningkatannya lebih jelas dibanding dengan plasma. KIM-1 urin yang diukur menggunakan metode ELISA memiliki potensi untuk dikembangkan dan digunakan sebagai parameter diagnosis dini AKI di masa mendatang


Kata Kunci


Cedera ginjal akut; Kidney Injury Molecule-1; biomarker KIM-1; ELISA

Teks Lengkap:

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Referensi


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.25077/jsfk.8.2.93-106.2021

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