Effect of Eleutherine americana Merr. bulb extract on blood pressure and heart rate in anesthetized hypertensive rats

Yori Yuliandra, Rizki Oktarini, Armenia Armenia


The effect of ethanolic extract of Eleutherine americana Merr. on the blood pressure and heart rate has been investigated. A number of 25 Sprague-Dawley male rats were induced with prednisone 1.5 mg/kg in combination with saline solution 2.5% for 14 days to obtain hypertension model. The rats were anesthetized and prepared for the recording of blood pressure and heart rate. The rats were divided into five groups receiving 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of the extract, vehicle control, and captopril 30 mg/kg as the reference. The treatment was administered three times with 30 minutes interval. The systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and heart rate (HR) were recorded. The data were analyzed with two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Duncan’s MRT (95% confidence interval). The study revealed that the extract exhibited a blood pressure lowering effect. The best antihypertensive activity of the extract was shown by the dose of 100 mg/kg. Meanwhile, HR was also affected inversely by the treatment, in which the lowest dose caused the highest increase. The study suggests that the extract of Eleutherine americana exhibits antihypertensive activity that may be potential for future development of drugs. 

Kata Kunci

Eleutherine americana; bawang dayak; hipertensi; tekanan darah; laju jantung

Teks Lengkap:

PDF (English)


WHO. WHO Traditional Medicine Strategy 2014-2023. World Health Organization (WHO). 2013. 1-76 p.

Carmona F, Pereira AMS. Herbal medicines: Old and new concepts, truths and misunderstandings. Brazilian J Pharmacogn. 2013;23(2):379–85.

Koehn FE, Carter GT. The evolving role of natural products in drug discovery. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2005;4(3):206–20.

Kuntorini EM, Nugroho LH. Structural development and bioactive content of red bulb plant (Eleutherine americana); a traditional medicines for local Kalimantan people. Biodiversitas, J Biol Divers. 2010;11(2):102–6.

Han A-R, Min H-Y, Nam J-W, Lee N-Y, Wiryawan A, Suprapto W, et al. Identification of a new naphthalene and its derivatives from the bulb of Eleutherine americana with inhibitory activity on lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production. Chem Pharm Bull. 2008;56(9):1314–6.

Xu J, Qiu F, Duan W, Qu G, Wang N, Yao X. New bioactive constituents from eleutherine americana. Front Chem China. 2006 Sep;1(3):320–3.

Insanu M, Kusmardiyani S, Hartati R. Recent Studies on Phytochemicals and Pharmacological Effects of Eleutherine Americana Merr. Procedia Chem. 2014;13:221–8.

Zhengxiong C, Huizhu H, Chengrui W, Yuhui L, Jianmi D, Sankawa U, et al. Hongconin, a New Naphtalene Derivative from Hong-Cong, the Rhizome of Eleutherine americana Merr. et Heyne (Iridaceae). Chem Pharm Bull. 1986;34(7):2743–6.

Komura H, Mizukawa K, Minakata H, Huang H, Qin G, Xu R. New anthraquinones from Eleutherine americana. Chem Pharm Bull. 1983;31(11):4206–8.

Hasimun P, Zakaria H, Susilawati E, Wardiono JD. Antihypertensive activity ethanolic extract of bulb Eleutherine americana Merr on fructose-induced hypertension rats. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2017;9(8):25–8.

Yuliandra Y, Armenia A, Arifin H. Antihypertensive and antioxidant activity of Cassytha filiformis L.: A correlative study. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2017 Jul;7(7):614–8.

Armenia N, Gustinanda D, Salasa AN, Yuliandra Y. Acute and delayed toxicity study of Cassytha filiformis defatted ethanolic extract. World J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2015;4(10):155–62.

Brzenzinski W. Blood Pressure. In: Walker H, Hall W, Hurst J, editors. Clinical Methods: The History, Physical, and Laboratory Examinations. 3rd Ed. Boston: Butterworth Publishers; 1990. p. 95–7.

Armenia N, Alen Y, Ismed F, Yuliandra Y, Ananda R, Fitria F. Blood sugar lowering effectiveness of Cassytha filiformis fractions on diabetic mice. Res J Pharm Biol Chem Sci. 2016;7(6):1142–7.

Armenia A, Yuliandra Y, Sattar MZA. Comparative effectiveness of defatted hypotensive crude extract, ethyl acetate and butanolic fractions of Cassytha filiformis L. on different models of hypertensive rats. World J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2014;3(12):200–8.

Plehm R, Barbosa ME, Bader M. Animal models for hypertension/blood pressure recording. Methods Mol Med. 2006;129:115–26.

Parasuraman S, Raveendran R. Measurement of invasive blood pressure in rats. J Pharmacol Pharmacother. 2012;3(2):172–7.

Badyal DK, Lata H, Dadhich AP. Animal Models of Hypertension and Effect of Drugs. Indian J Pharmacol. 2003;35:349–62.

Giles TD, Materson BJ, Cohn JN, Kostis JB. Definition and classification of hypertension: An update. J Clin Hypertens. 2009;11(11):611–4.

Turner P V, Brabb T, Pekow C, Vasbinder M a. Administration of substances to laboratory animals: routes of administration and factors to consider. J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci. 2011;50(5):600–13.

Mahabusarakam W, Hemtasin C, Chakthong S, Voravuthikunchai S, Olawumi I. Naphthoquinones, Anthraquinones and Naphthalene Derivatives from the Bulbs of Eleutherine americana. Planta Med. 2010 Mar 23;76(4):345–9.

Manning RD, Tian N, Meng S. Oxidative stress and antioxidant treatment in hypertension and the associated renal damage. Am J Nephrol. 2005;25(4):311–7.

Riccioni G, Bucciarelli T, Mancini B, Di Ilio C, Capra V, D’Orazio N. The role of the antioxidant vitamin supplementation in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2007;16(1):25–32.

Wilcox CS, Pearlman A. Chemistry and antihypertensive effects of tempol and other nitroxides. Pharmacol Rev. 2008;60(4):418–69.

Marañon RO, Juncos LA, Joo Turoni C, Karbiner S, Romero D, Peral De Bruno M. Tempol blunts afferent arteriolar remodeling in chronic nitric oxide-deficient hypertension without normalizing blood pressure. Clin Exp Hypertens. 2014;36(3):132–9.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.25077/jsfk.5.2.119-125.2018

Article Metrics

Abstract view : 347 times
PDF (English) view/download : 304 times

Jurnal Sains Farmasi & Klinis (J Sains Farm Klin) | p-ISSN: 2407-7062 | e-ISSN: 2442-5435

Diterbitkan oleh Fakultas Farmasi Universitas Andalas bekerjasama dengan Ikatan Apoteker Indonesia - Daerah Sumatera Barat 


 JSFK is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.