Lead distribution in rice plant leaves planted in Sukawening Village, Jatinangor District, West Bandung Regency, West Java

Wong Chun Ming, Driyanti Rahayu, Jutti Levita


Lead is harmful when its amounts in food are higher than the optimum. Plants with high levels of lead may trigger the generation of reactive oxygen species and eventually cell death. Our study aimed to assess lead distribution in rice plant leaves planted in Sukawening Village, Jatinangor District, West Bandung Regency, West Java. The rice plant leaves were collected each month until 4 months. The samples were dried and underwent wet destruction. Visible spectrophotometry with the addition of xylenol orange was employed to identify the lead metal in the samples, followed by a standard addition photometric titration method. Our results indicated that lead was identified in the samples since the plant was 1 month old as proven by the Pb-xylenol orange peak at 580 nm. The level of lead in the rice plant leaves were: 1st month (0.4118 mg/kg); 2nd month (0.5232 mg/kg); 3rd month (0.6206 mg/kg); and 4th month (0.5264 mg/kg). We concluded that the lead level in the rice plants is in the range of that required by the Verdict of the Director General of the National Agency of Drug and Food Control No. 03725/B/SK/89 about the Maximum Limit of Heavy Metal Contamination in Food.


Kata Kunci

heavy metal; hypertension; lead (Pb); Oryza sativa; toxicity

Teks Lengkap:

PDF (English)


Ashraf U, Mahmood MH, Hussain S, Abbas F, Anjum SA, Tang X. Lead (Pb) distribution and accumulation in different plant parts and its associations with grain Pb contents in fragrant rice. Chemosphere 2020; 248: 126003. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.126003

Li JX, Yang XE, Hea ZL, Jilani G, Sun CY, Chen SM. Fractionation of lead in paddy soils and its bioavailability to rice plants. Geoderma 2007; 141(3-4): 174-180. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2007.05.006

Panich-pat T, Srinives P. Partitioning of lead accumulation in rice plants. Thai J Agric Sci. 2009; 42(1): 35-40. URL: https://www.thaiscience.info/journals/Article/TJAS/10469544.pdf

Fu J, Zhou Q, Liu J, Liu W, Wang T, Zhang Q, Jiang G. High levels of heavy metals in rice (Oryza sativa L.) from a typical E-waste recycling area in southeast China and its potential risk to human health. Chemosphere. 2008; 71(7): 1269-1275. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2007.11.065

Amelia RA, Rachmadiarti F, Yuliani Y. Analysis of lead level and the growth of rice plants in rice fields in Betas Village, Kapulungan, Gempol-Pasuruan. LenteraBio 2015; 4(3): 187-191.

Anwarul Hasan GMM, Das AK, Satter MA. Accumulation of heavy metals in rice (Oryza sativa. L) grains cultivated in three major industrial areas of Bangladesh. J Environment Public Health 2022; 2022: Article ID 1836597. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2022/1836597

Najeeb U, Ahmad W, Zia MH, Malik Z, Zhou W. Enhancing the lead phytostabilization in wetland plant Juncus effusus L. through somaclonal manipulation and EDTA enrichment. Arab J Chem. 2017; 10(2): S3310-S3317. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arabjc.2014.01.009

Loh N, Loh HP, Wang LK, Wang MHS. Health effects and control of toxic lead in the environment. Nat Resour Control Process. 2016; 233–284.

Jaishankar M, Tseten T, Anbalagan N, Mathew BB, Beeregowda KN. Toxicity, mechanism and health effects of some heavy metals. Interdiscip Toxicol. 2014; 7(2): 60-72. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478%2Fintox-2014-0009

Briffa J, Sinagra E, Blundell R. Heavy metal pollution in the environment and their toxicological effects on humans. Heliyon 2020; 6(9): e04691. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04691

Vaziri ND. Mechanisms of lead-induced hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2008; 295(2): H454-465. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00158.2008

Moldenhauer K, Counce P, Hardke J. Rice Growth and Development. In Arkansas Rice Production Handbook. URL: https://www.uaex.uada.edu/publications/pdf/mp192/chapter-2-word.pdf

Ensafi AA, Shiraz AZ. On-line separation and preconcentration of lead(II) by solid-phase extraction using activated carbon loaded with xylenol orange and its determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. J Hazard Mater. 2008; 150(3): 554-559. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2007.05.001

Ghasemi JB, Kariminia S. Simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of lead, copper and nickel using xylenol orange by partial least squares. J Iranian Chem Res. 2012; 5(4): 213-221.

Sun JQ. Determination of Pb2+ in wastewater by lead(II)-dithizone-xylenol orange ternary complex spectrophotometry. AMR 2014; 1030–1032: 301–304.

Bashir W, Butler SG, Paull B. Determination of lead in water samples using ion chromatography with a xylenol orange containing eluent. Anal Lett. 2001; 34(9).

Coscionea A, De Andrade JC, Poppi RJ, Mello C, Raij BV, De Abreu NF. Anal Chim Acta. 2000; 423: 31.

Tehrani MS, Ghasemi JB, Baharifard MT. Simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of zinc, cadmium and lead by xylenol orange using the partial least squares method after their preconcentration by 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-carboxylphenyl)porphyrin on amberlite IRA-402 resin. Asian J Chem. 2012; 24(7): 3078-3086.

Zaporozhets OA, Tsyukalo LE. Test determination of lead and zinc in water with the use of xylenol orange immobilized on silica. J Anal Chem. 2004; 59: 386–391.

Verdict of the Director General of the National Agency of Drug and Food Control No. 03725/B/SK/89 about the Maximum Limit of Heavy Metal Contamination in Food.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.25077/jsfk.9.3.265-270.2022

Article Metrics

Abstract view : 162 times
PDF (English) view/download : 97 times

JSFK (Jurnal Sains Farmasi & Klinis) (J Sains Farm Klin) | p-ISSN: 2407-7062 | e-ISSN: 2442-5435

Diterbitkan oleh Fakultas Farmasi Universitas Andalas bekerjasama dengan Ikatan Apoteker Indonesia - Daerah Sumatera Barat 


 JSFK is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.